Global Game Exhibition (G-Star) 2017 – Busan, South Korea (Philippine Delegates)

14 12 2017

      Last July 26, 2017, we received an email from the Animation Council of the Philippines, that Ms. Tess S. Loring, Chief Services Division of DTI-EMB (Department of Trade and Industry – Export Marketing Bureau) together with PTIC (Philippine Trade and Investment Center) Seoul through their Commercial Counselor, Mr. Emmanuel W. Ang, were seeking companies interested to participate in G-Star 2017, Busan, South Korea.


            Title of the Exhibition: Global Game Exhibition 2017 (G-Star 2017)                                  Date: 16 – 18 November 2017                                                                                                      Mission Period: 14 – 19 November 2017                                                                                    Opening Hours: 10:00 – 18:00
            Venue: Exhibition Centre 2, BEXCO, Busan, Republic of Korea
            Exhibition Coverage: Game Software (online, mobile, video, board,                                       arcade, indie) and Game-related hardware
             Number of Exhibitors: 30 Companies for 10 ASEAN Member States                                    (AMS) (3 from each AMS)

Busan Exhibition and Convention Center (BEXCO)


     The ASEAN-KOREAN CENTER (AKC) will be covering the following expenses:

         – Space Rental & Booth Construction
         – Printing of Backdrop using images provided by the exhibitor

     One person per company
        – Round-trip air ticket: Economy class
        – Accommodation: Five (5) nights
        – Domestic Transportation

      While the DTI-EMB will be choosing the 3 companies that will participate in the event. The companies just needed to submit the Exhibition Registration Form and digital images of the main product sample before the August 4, 2017, deadline.

     In past years, the AKC worked with the BOI (Board of Investments) to organize the Philippine delegation for this event. This year it was offered to the DTI-EMB; the BOI felt that the project is more aligned with the DTI-EMB since its main purpose is to help generate exports. They also wanted to focus on making this opportunity available to small companies not only in Metro Manila but also from other regions in the country.

     Top Peg Animation Studio indicated its intention to join and suggested Anthro Katipunan, the game designer for our mobile game, to be its representative. We submitted the requirements on July 31, together with a letter that we were excited to promote our first mobile game, The Crop Circle Warriors©, globally.

      On August 29, we were informed that not 3, but 6 companies were chosen by DTI-EMB to join the event. Apparently, some countries had only 1 or 2 representatives which opened slots for our country. The 6 companies and their main product were:

             1. Synergy 88 Digital – Barangay 143 Street League (Mobile game)
             2. Emottoons Studio (Cebu) – Animation Services
             3. Audacity Studio (Iloilo) – Digger: Puzzle Quest for Hidden Gems
             4. Indigo Entertainment – Agent Aliens (Mobile game)
             5. Top Peg Animation & Creative Studio Inc. – The Crop Circle Warriors©                       (Mobile game)
             6. Xurpas – Woot (App Store)

     Unfortunately, Anthro wasn’t able to fix his passport in time for the event. So I had to replace him as the company’s representative. We duly informed the DTI-EMB about this change on September 13, since we had a deadline to submit a copy of the passport and completed guidelines for G-star.

     We were also reminded of the Business Matching System, where we needed to register at the G-Star site and set up meeting schedules with different companies that were either exhibitors or visitors at G-star. These companies can then approve the meeting schedule if they were interested. I received 2 invitations from companies from China and Vietnam, while I was able to send 7 invitations to different companies, only 3 approved. Anyway, in my experience at the Tokyo Game Show, more clients made meetings at the booth rather than set it online. So I wasn’t worried too much about this.

      We were given access to the Business Matching sites when I learned that Emottoons Studio was replaced by Ingenuity Studios (Davao) – which had 2 games Tamagogo and Mayari (Mobile games) that won back to back as best game at the ICT Creative Awards.

     September 20, we learned the confirmed number of participants per country.We also learned our hotel accommodations and flight schedule.
          1. Brunei -1
          2. Cambodia – 4 (incl. the Ministry of Commerce)
          3. Indonesia – 4 (one additional company)
          4. Malaysia – 3
          5. Myanmar – 4 (one additional company)
          6. Philippines – 6 (three additional companies)
          7. Singapore – 3
          8. Thailand – 3
          9. Vietnam – 3
         10. Laos – 0 (did not participate this year)

                       Total 30 companies.

      September 29, due to my experience at the Tokyo Game Show last 2014, I knew it would be hard to meet potential passing clients at our booth while having other meetings with other companies. I suggested to the DTI-EMB that a second representative of Top Peg be allowed to attend. At that moment, Xurpas also sent an email stating that they will be sending two representatives and they will take care of the additional persons’ expenses. The AKC promptly considered it and said that the hotel rooms are good for two people, so we just needed to pay for the flight, transportation and Trade Badge. Since Edith Sarthou, who is our Administration Head and also my wife, knew of the costing for our different projects, I suggested that she come along with us. Xurpas also requested if they could fly at an earlier date, with the cost of accommodations at their expense. Aside from Xurpas and Top Peg, Synergy 88 also had a 2nd representative.

       October 4, we had a delegation meeting at the DTI-International Building. Present were the delegates, James Lo of Indigo Entertainment, Sofia Adap of Xurpas, Joemar Albino of Synergy 88, Me and Edith for Top Peg. Hajee Aquino of Audacity (Iloilo) was also present via Skype, while John Naranjo of Ingenuity (Davao) was not online. Also present were the representatives from DTI-EMB, Ms. Tess Loring, Ms. Glecy Cademia and Mr. Rhys Manabat. Highlights of the meeting were the discussion of the Business Matching Activity, the additional representatives and setting up a Viber group for easy communication between delegates. Also, the delegates informed the DTI-EMB of the problems that were encountered last year, since Audacity and Indigo also joined them. They said that the Invitation Letter from the AKC should be sent to us so we can process our visas earlier since there was the ASEAN Summit, with a 1 week holiday, coming up. We were also advised to have our calling cards printed with Korean translation at the back.

     We received the Invitation Letters plus our flight schedules on October 13, from Mr. An-Jin Hun of the Asean-Korean Center (AKC).


     November 2, Indigo Entertainment informed the DTI-EMB  that Mr. James Lo would be replaced by Mr. Eduardo Nilo due to last minute commitments. 

       The Korean Embassy opens at 8:30 am but we were advised by the guard to be there by 6:30 am when we inquired last October 30We were able to apply for our Visas on November 3We arrived at about 6:45 am and there was already about a hundred people already in line. We just needed to list our names at the window, by 8:30 am those on the list will be called in, anyone not in the list would fall in line outside and take a chance if they will still be called in. After that, you just need to fall in line again and submit the documents to the guard, who then checks and approves it. You will be given a number that would be called at a specific window for the interview. I was placed in a special lane since I was able to travel to Japan before, and since Edith was my wife, she too was able to avail of the special lane. At the window, they just asked the purpose of the trip. They then gave me a schedule on when to pick up our passports with the Visa. We received our Visas on November 8. Edith was also able to purchase a promo flight from JejuAir with a round trip ticket for only P14,000++.

Republic of Korea VISA

     We were also asked to send our backdrop designs based on the ASEAN Pavillion design that they gave us.

ASEAN Pavillion Design

     When I designed the backdrop for Top Peg, I decided to place Korean translations. Since it was suggested by the DTI -EMB that our calling cards have a translation, then why not our backdrop too. I used Google Translate to do the translations. I had a cousin, who works for a Korean-English School, who had her boss check the translations. Her boss said I made a mistake on the word “CROP”, my version meant “To Cut”, instead of “vegetation”.

                               Original Translation                              

Corrected Image 

The Backdrops for the Philippines

     We had another pre-departure meeting at the DTI-EMB office on November  9. Present were all the representatives of each company, Hajee of Audacity was there via Skype. Mr. John Naranjo of Ingenuity called in sick. We learned that Hajee had a problem with his Visa documents, which was lost in transit since he applied for his Visa in Cebu, the DTI-EMB  promised to help him fix this. Mr. Eduardo Nilo of Indigo was voted to be the point leader of the delegates since he attended the same event last year. Joemar Albino of Synergy 88 would be doing the presentation for the Philippines, and I was assigned to be the photographer.

     Alstaire (Top Peg), Eduardo Nilo (Indigo), Edith (Top Peg), Sofia Adap (Xurpas), Tess Loring (DTI-EMB), Glecy Cadenia (DTI-EMB).

     November 13 Flight to South Korea was at 11:45 pm. We were informed that Hajee of Audacity that his Korean Visa wasn’t processed in time as it now took 7 days to process the Visa in the province, instead of two days a few years back. He wasn’t able to join the trip.

November 14 , 2017 –  DAY 1

     Upon arriving at the airport at around 5:00 am, we purchased a data SIM card so that I will always be online for our viber group. It cost about P1,300 for 5 days. We then took a limousine cab to our hotel, Fraser Place at Namdaemun, Seoul. Seoul was clean and it was cold, 3 degrees Celsius. It’s a good thing we brought scarves and gloves. And when the wind blew, we froze because of the freezing air. The hotel room was nice and cozy, but our view was a construction building at the back. The toilet even had the controls on a tablet like a remote.

     The workshop and presentation of the participating countries would start about 1:30 pm so we had time to stroll and take lunch outside.  We saw the market, lots of street food and cheap clothes. We had Omurice (Omelette Rice) and Beef Soup which included a lot of side dishes.

     The workshop was held at the Namdaemun function room at the Fraser Place; we were given a copy of the presentations bound like a book. Surprisingly, the Philippines’ and Singapore’s presentation weren’t included. We learned that we weren’t able to submit a power point presentation ahead of the event. We were given a deadline of September, but we weren’t able to comply.

     Mr. An-Jin Hun of the Asean-Korean Center (AKC) welcomed all the delegates and showed a video of this event. This will be played on a large screen at the center of the ASEAN Pavillion.

Mr. An-Jin Hun of the AKC

1st Topic

The Current Status of the Korean Game Industry (In program)
How to make a No. 1 game across the globe (actual presentation) by Jung Mu-Sik, Vice President, Lunosoft Inc.

  Mr. Jung Mu-Sik of Lunasoft Inc.

     I’m not sure why they changed their presentation, but this topic gave me insights on how to market one’s game globally. Mr. Jung talked about their partnership with large IPs such as Disney, the game is Disney Catch Catch. It is basically a “Spot the Difference” Puzzle game for iOS. He also talked about changing design styles and gameplay depending on the country you wished to publish. He showed the game that was released in Korea. It has a pirate story as an intro and a pirate ship in the titles.

   Disney Touch Touch

     When they released the game in Japan, the pirate ship was changed to Mickey Mouse (who is very popular in Japan), who was not a main character in the game. The title was changed to Disney Touch Touch, which they couldn’t explain why. And the pirate story Intro was replaced by a map with levels. Also, the Achievements and Competition modes were removed. Japanese gamers don’t really like confrontation or match their game score with others, they’d rather play alone, this is according to their data research.

    They also showed the difference in business models. The Korean version had a store where you buy Rubies as currency for In-app purchases, while in the Japanese version, you buy a Gacha, which is an eggshell toy where you don’t know what prize you will get inside.

     Items for sale were also different, Korean version had different Pirate Ships while the Japanese version had Pens with Disney Character Heads.

2nd Topic 

Global Mobile Gaming Market Strategy by Mr. No Hyun-Kwan, Director, Mobirix, Co.

      Mr. No Hyun-Kwan showed different business models for the game but showed that the best model for them was the combination of Ads and In-app purchases. They showed charts on their games’ progress.

     Usually, the life cycle of a new mobile game is a few weeks. After launching, a game gets featured, it gets a few thousand downloads, then it gets forgotten. As a business model, developers need to plan on how their game be sustainable for months than weeks. Next, they showed us the business model they apply in their games.

     One of their games, Shooting King was launched April 2017, It was a Free to play the game with Ads and In-app purchases. It got featured in Google Play in the same month, then they improved their In-app purchases and Ads by July 2017, and pushed marketing by October 2017. This was done as a plan to sustain the game for several months.

     They also said that it is not enough to use social media to market your game. Social media is just 1 of 28 ways to market. Press release, blog sites are other ways. And having a good customer support service is a good strategy to have for your game.

3rd Topic

Entering ASEAN Game Market and Related Issues, by Mr. Kim Dong-Sung, CEO, Movegames Co.

    Mr. Kim Dong-Sung talked about ASEAN having the highest potential of growth among emerging markets. The top 5 gaming markets being (comparing game revenues):

  1. Thailand – $252,300,000
  2. Malaysia – $214,200,000
  3. Singapore – $201,600,000
  4. Indonesia – $140,800,000
  5. Philippines – $96,800,000

     Also, he says, aside from mobile, Steam, is a new platform that ASEAN market can tap. He also said that the PC-Online Game is a huge and growing market, and Korean developers and publishers are entering into Steam. One Korean game that was successful was the “Battleground” game.

     They are also testing out a new business model for mobile games, Animation IP. Where the player needs to watch a video (story related to the game) to be able to continue playing. Since most of their games are based on existing IPs such as Power Rangers, this made a lot of sense. This new business model is still in the prototype stage though.

     Next presenters were from each country. Mostly they showed statistics of their country. I will just list the statistics or if there were some information relevant to that country.

1) Brunei Game Industry, by Mr. Farhan Ismail, Co-founder/CTO, Itsybytes Company

Total Population: 431,700

Mobile Subscriptions: 515,800

     Some people had more than one phone which is the reason that the subscriptions is higher than the population. One problem they faced with mobile gaming was the payment system. E-payment gateways through local banks are still growing, and recently First Data Merchant Solutions was established. Also, a Korean company FinTech will be setting up a Centre in Brunei. Bitcoin is also being accepted.

     Their current status is that they are relatively new in the industry, and small game developers in the country have only 4 options:

  1. Hope for a serendipitous hit.
  2. Align with a major publisher
  3. Global crowdfunding
  4. Self-publish online deliverables

     Mr. Fahran is subsidized by the government, according to him, if you do business with him you are basically talking to the government of Brunei.

2) Cambodia’s Game Market by Sabay Osja Co., Ltd.

Total Population: 15,950,000

Mobile Subscription: 27,600,000

     Game Preference: Candy Crush, Billiards, Vain Glory, Casino Game

     Payment Systems: Pi Pay,Wing, Pay & Go, Smart NW Luy,Bongloy, Acleda Unity, E money,E Cash,Asia Wei Luy, True Money

3) Indonesia Game Industry Outlook by Arief Widhisaya, Secretary General, Indonesia Game Association (AGI)

Total Population: 255,500,000

Mobile Subscription: 308,200,000

     Game Preferences: Strategy Games – 30%, Racing Games – 25%, Action Games – 18%, Arcade Games – 14%, Simulations – 14%, Other – 4%

     In Conclusion: In general, Indonesia’s gaming market is growing very fast. Predicted to be 1 Billion USD by 2020. Local game industry ecosystem still very bleak, yet the potential is there.

4) Overview of Malaysia Game Industry (No name of speaker)

 Total Population: 30,800,000

Online Population: 22,800,000

Total Revenue: $539,500,000

     The speaker showed more of Malaysia’s growing achievements in the game industry.

  • Malaysian Game Company going IPO
  • Malaysian IP being recognized internationally
  • Creative Content and Technology
  • Schools for Animation and Games
  • A homegrown industry

5) Myanmar Game Industry Overview (No name of speaker)

Current Game Trends:

  • Most of Myanmar’s gaming population contributes to mobile gaming
  • Gamers above 25 are few compared to other countries
  • Most popular games are MMORPG, Strategy and Card games

Potential of Game Production in Myanmar

  • Very few game companies
  • High demand for Burmese games
  • Rapid economic growth shows potential for exponential growth

Current Issues in Game Production

  • Few in-app purchases due to limited number of credit card users
  • Limited resource of talents
  • Use of jailbroken games
  • Lack of schools which offers 3D animation
  • Lack of advanced technical knowledge for game production

Payment Systems

  • Mobile credit by mobile service provider
  • Steam accounts
  • Credit cards 

6) The Game Developers Association of the Philippines by Joemar Albino, Synergy 88


     We are not included in the book because GDAP wasn’t able to provide the presentation when the AKC needed it for printing. Anyway, Joemar talked about the Philippines being the go to a country for game testing and quality assurance. We also have schools that offered game development plus a growing industry of game developers, publishers and more. Big companies, such as Ubisoft, are now setting up shop in the Philippines to tap the bountiful talent that is available in the country.

7) Singapore Games Industry (No name of speaker)

Total Population: 5,700,000

Online Population: 4,900,000

Gamers: 3,300,000

     Paying gamers in Singapore spend an average of $204.72 per year, which is the highest average in Southeast Asia, and seventh highest in the world.

8) Thai Videogames Opportunities in Global Market (No name of speaker)

Thailand is in the Top 20 Countries for Game Revenues 2016 at number 20.

Total Population: 68,100,000

Online Population: 28,700,000

Total Revenues: $521,300,000

     Thailand has Publishing, Art Outsourcing, and Game Outsourcing services. They also have their own IP and won some awards. Their primary market is China and Japan.

9) Overview of Vietnam Game Industry by Ha Hong Minh, Director,Vinh Xuan

Total Population: 93,000,000

Online Population: 50,000,000+

Mobile Subscriptions: 130,000,000

Mobile OS Market Share: Android – 67%, iOS – 29%, Others – 4%

     They are planning to target more female-oriented games because women have more mobile phones than men. Also, eSports is very popular in their country, hence competitive games are a top draw.

The speaker also had a sub-topic on “How to be successful in Vietnam Mobile Game Market”

  1. Choose the right games
  2. Target right users
  3. Operate right way
  4. Customer service 24/7

Or better yet, choose the right local publisher in Vietnam.

     The talk ended about 6:00 pm, we then went out of the hotel to see some of the sights at the market and ate dinner. 

November 15, 2017  – Day 2  

Industrial Visit I: Creative Economy and Innovation Center

     9:00 am – All the delegates regrouped at the Fraser Place lobby for the Industrial Visit; two buses were provided for all the delegates. Bus 1 had Malaysia, Brunei, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Cambodia. We were in Bus 2 with Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. It was a 45-minute bus ride to Pan-kyo where the Gyeonggi Center for Creative Economy & Innovation is located.

     The Center is located in a valley in Pan-kyo, South Korea. There are several centers here that house game and animation studios, research centers and startup centers.

     10:00 am – When we arrived here it was extremely cold, and being in a valley, seemed to create a wind tunnel. When we turned towards a corner of a building, the freezing wind would make everyone stop.

Sofia and Hannah of Xurpas, Joemar of Synergy88, John of Ingenuity, Dokes of Indigo and Alstaire of Top Peg

     At the Gyeonggi Center for Creative Economy & Innovation, outside the buildings looked like typical office buildings, simple architecture and all gray with glass. Inside though, it looked like modern creative offices such as Google. They had Cargo containers converted into modular offices, colorful floors and furniture.

       A fellow who called himself David (He said his name is hard to pronounce by foreigners) did the presentation about South Korea.

     He had some interesting trivia about South Korea. He said that Samsung holds 24% of the Gross Domestic Product in all of South Korea, so if Samsung falls their economy will be in big trouble. Also, the big companies diversify into different industries, that is why you will find Hyundai Malls, Samsung Malls, Hyundai Gas stations, etc…

     Samsung is now the 2nd top-selling device when it comes to mobile phones and appliances. It has surpassed both Nokia and Sony.

     There are more Fried Chicken restaurants (36,000 as of 2014) in South Korea than there are McDonald’s (35,429 as of 2014) around the world. The government supports the people who want to start-up a company, and most unemployed people suggest a fried chicken restaurant. An example was someone wanted to start a wine shop, but the government has a law that they won’t fund a startup that has alcohol as their main product. So the person made his shop, Chicken, and Wine. In fact, the Korean government knows that unemployment is on the rise when there are more chicken restaurants this year than the prior year. We asked them which was the most popular chicken restaurant, they said it was Kyo Chon, which is also available in the Philippines. We did not get to try it though because most of the shops had Korean text so it would be hard to find.

     David also talked about the Korean Startup Landscape. There are a number of IT-related startup companies in the Pan-kyo valley.

     Below is the whole area of the techno-valley which is similar to the techno hub that was built in Sta. Rosa, Laguna here in the Philippines. This one though is much larger. Below is the map, and we are in just one building.

     He next gave us a tour of the startup offices and research labs. We went up to the 7th floor via elevator.

     He even showed how advance the security system is here, with retina scanner to open doors.

     They showed a 3D Lab where they print different prototype items and figures, a Mobile Lab where they test different kinds of mobile devices.


      And they showed us different devices that they came up with like the Smart Umbrella. This umbrella has a built-in barometer so it can communicate with your mobile phone to show how the weather will be, including temperature, humidity and wind velocity.

     There was a bitcoin atm machine, as they are one of the countries that have accepted bitcoin as a currency.

     They also showed us where they develop and test Virtual Reality apps and games.

Joemar, Alstaire, John, Sofia and Hannah.

     Going down they made us take the stairs. It was cool that the calories that you burn are shown on the stairwell.

     He then showed us the other buildings that included an animation and game studio. The buildings all looked alike and there were no signs. It was really freezing but he invited us to a bridge that crosses a creek in the valley. All the delegates were not comfortable with the cold weather but we were able to take a few snapshots.

    The ASEAN delegates

      12:30 pm – After this, we took the AKC bus to a mall for lunch, it was a buffet lunch but it was small compared to the buffet restaurants in the Philippines. It was mostly Korean dishes but it was cozy. We only had 45 minutes for lunch because the train that we would take to Busan had a 2:00 pm schedule, if you miss it, it would take another hour to wait.

     1:30 pm – The bus then took us to the train station which is a 10-minute drive from the mall. At the train station, everyone recognized the place at it was featured in the movie – ‘Train to Busan’. Everyone had selfies at the station, at the train and also near the tracks.

This is me checking if there are zombies at the back.

It took about 2.5 hours by train passing through the provinces.

     4:30 pm – we arrived at the Busan Train Station; there were 2 buses again provided by the AKC waiting for us at the station. There was a Marvel Shield Theme Park beside the train station in Busan.

Everyone was asleep on the bus, tired from the train ride.

     5:30 pm– It was a bit traffic, so we arrived 30 minutes later than our schedule. Busan was less cold than Seoul at 10 degrees Celsius but still cold, it was like San Francisco – a bay area. We took another bus to the Busan Exhibition & Convention Center or BEXCO, for the ingress.

     When we got there we first saw the ASEAN Pavillion and then everyone started to prepare their booths for day one of G-Star 2017.  Here we met Josh (in orange jacket), the other representative of Synergy 88. He took a flight straight to Busan because of prior engagements.

     6:30 pm – We then took the bus to our hotel – Shilla Stay. It was a smaller hotel but had good architecture and interior design.

     There was faux fireplace, since the wood was just for display and the fire came out of a gas burner. A faux bar, with no liquor, a giant teddy bear and a business area with a long table with books about design and architecture.

     Our room was simple but had moving dividers that expose a glass window to the bathroom. It also had an advance remote control for the toilet. This time I took pictures. What was funny was that there was an emergency button beside the remote, maybe when you run out of batteries.


     8:30 pm– We took a late dinner at a McDonalds close to the hotel with John Naranjo of Ingenuity. The burgers were different; I got a 1955 burger, Edith got a Beef and Shrimp Burger and John got a Grilled BBQ burger. There was no small size only big, and it cost about P300 for each meal. We also needed to clean up after eating which we almost did not do until we saw the cashier’s eye widened in disbelief with our ‘uncivilized’ behavior of not cleaning up the trash after eating. We immediately noticed her reaction and cleaned up after. After this, we went back to the hotel to get ready for the next day.

November 16, 2017 – Day 3

Official Day 1 of G-Star

     I tried the breakfast buffet at Shilla Stay Hotel, and it was the typical breakfast buffet Korean style. There was an egg station, bread station, ramen station, bacon and cold cuts, and roasted veggies, plus coffee, juices, and tea.

     We took the shuttle bus from the hotel to BEXCO at 9:20 am. When we arrived there we saw the huge line forming outside. The business meeting is held at a different building from the exhibition hall for the public. The general public is not allowed to enter the business meeting area. The picture below was taken from the third floor of the business meeting building. We noticed that there were no cosplayers, unlike in Manila where most of the attendees were in full costumes.

     Inside we started to prepare our booths. The other delegates too were busy attending to their booths.

     We finally met Mr. Emmanuel W. Ang (Emman for short), Commercial Counselor of the DTI-PTIC Seoul. He was happy we were there but he was disappointed that Hajee of Audacity couldn’t make it. He said it would be an issue with the AKC since they have fully paid for the flight and accommodations. He said that this will be brought up at a post-meeting for G-Star. We were also surprised to see Mr. Joebert Yu, organizer of the E-Sports and Gaming Summit (ESGS) in Manila. He was looking for potential exhibitors for next years ESGS.

Joebert of ESGS, Eduardo “Dokes” of Indigo, Hannah of Xurpas, Als, Emman of  PTIC Seoul, Sofie of Xurpas, Edith and John of Ingenuity

     When the doors finally opened we were greeted by different companies for publishing, mobile game stores, customer support, advertising, etc. We then started our business meetings. We met with those that we scheduled at their website, and also some who were walk-in from other companies. Since this was the first day, we didn’t get to go around the exhibition hall that much.

     We agreed that we would take lunch at intervals so there would always be representatives at the Philippine booth. Edith and I went to lunch at around 1:00 pm. We looked at and entered a nearby restaurant where a number of people were eating.

     We saw that the people there were eating a hot pot of pork ribs and veggies, unfortunately, the menu was in Korean. We saw a picture with small, medium and large sizes. Thinking that the people eating there ordered the small size, we thought of ordering a medium then splitting it between ourselves. When our food arrived, we were surprised at the size of the hot pot. We ordered the group meal instead of the solo meal. It had 7 slabs of pork ribs and lots of veggies. We messaged the other delegates and told them our problem, that we mistakenly ordered and we could not finish it alone. But they already have eaten their lunch, so we just ate what we could. The medium size meal cost around P1,400 instead of the P380 for the solo meal.

    The soup was a bit spicy and the ribs were very tender, this was the perfect food for the cold weather. They called the soup Gamjatang or Haejang-guk or Hangover soup.

     We went back to our hotel at 6:20 pm. We were invited via online to the G-star welcome party but we learned that it was going to be at a bar named Devil’s Door. So Edith and I passed and said we will attend the next party since the organizers said that there will be others. I was able to get pictures from the other delegates who attended. The other delegates said that they attended 2 parties, and they got home at about 2:00 am. Edith and I didn’t eat dinner because we ate too much at lunch and we need to conserve our budget.


November 17, 2017 – Day 4

Official Day 2 of G-Star

      I again took the buffet breakfast, Edith passed because we would need to pay extra P700 for the extra head since the AKC only booked for one head. We again headed to BEXCO by bus at 9:20 am.  The business meetings continued with other firms. 

     This time we went to the other booths, we saw the other Korean companies as well as some big developers.

Com2Us invited us to a party at 8:00 pm

Gamevil and Com2Us booths

Kakao Games Booth

Unity booth

      We also went to the B2C booths, this the convention area and it was located in another building connected with where we are staying by an elevated walkway.

    The majority were Korean game companies and I noticed only one Japanese game company the Bandai Namco.

Bandai Namco booth

     There were a few cosplayers unlike at the Tokyo Game Show or even compared to our local game conventions, where there are hundreds of cosplayers. There were also virtual games.

     The highlight of G-Star is the eSports. These are games where a lot of players compete with each other until there are only 2 players left who compete for the grand prize. This is similar to the format of the ESGS, where there are a number of eSport games, like FIFA Online, which is a soccer game, Battlegrounds, Icarus and Starcraft.

We also saw some Korean game character statues on display.

     At lunchtime, we tried the food court at BEXCO. Here they only serve 2 types of dishes: the Pork Rice Topping and the Beef Soup. Edith ordered the pork toppings, it had a lot of side dishes for free while I had the beef soup.

     At dinner time around 7:00 pm, we were invited by Mr. Emman Ang for an authentic Korean barbecue about two blocks away from our hotel. We went to this restaurant where the parking lot doubles as an outdoor dining area where we seated behind the cars.

     We sat on a long table with 2 grills. Emman was on another table with the girls from Xurpas and Dokes. They gave us raw pork and beef that we then cooked on the grills. They placed kimchi and raw eggs at the side of the grill to cook. There were also condiments for us to season the meats while cooking.

       Thinking we had a good free meal, Emman said that we should chip in for the cost of our table, while they chip in at their table. It cost about P800 per head, so I was caught off guard because of our dwindling budget. After dinner, we went straight to the Com2Us Business Networking Party at the Grand Ballroom of the Haeundae Grand Hotel. The said hotel is also just a walking distance from our hotel.

      We were a bit late to the networking party, so we rushed to go there and arrived about 9:00 pmEdith and I then regretted having a paid dinner when we saw the variety of free food available. There was chicken, prawns, beef, burgers and lots more. We were full already, so we just tasted some of the food. 

     The networking party was a good place to meet the other exhibitors. Then they announced that there was a raffle, they gave away a large Gundam Tobot, a drone, some action figures as well as computer accessories. No one from the Philippine delegates won.  It was a fun night, after which we went back to the hotel at around 10:00 pm.

November 18, 2017 – Day 5

Official Day 3 of G-Star

    Our hotel was only a block away from the famous Haeundae Beach. So we went for a morning stroll at 8:00 am. It was freezing but the beach was nice and clean. There were a lot of seagulls and pigeons. And there was an Aquarium near the beach but it was still closed.

     Back at the BEXCO around 10:00 am, the crowd was still large. There were fewer people at the business matching so it gave us a chance to go to each Korean booth and give our calling cards, show our game and make some connections.

     We tried one of the food trucks outside for lunch this time at around 11:30 am, we chose the shortest line with barbecue ribs. The price was equivalent to P280 for a single serving. It was good though, but we had to eat at tables made out of cargo planks at the parking area. There were also some cosplayers who posed with the crowd at the food truck area.

     We also took shots at the park beside the BEXCO. When we went back at 12:30 pm, all the staff of the AKC and the ASEAN delegates were having photo shoots, so we joined them. We thank everyone for the warm hospitality. It was a great experience for us overall.

John of Indigo, An Jin of the AKC, Als, Edith, Ms. Park of the AKC, another guide and Josh of Synergy.

ASEAN Delegates

     After G-Star, some of us agreed to go to the mall for stuff to take home at around 6:00 pm. The mall was so big and stuff was too expensive, so we weren’t really able to take home anything. We had dinner at the food court and we took a taxi back to the hotel afterward at around 9:00 pm.

Mall and Dinner

November 19, 2017 – Day 6

To the Airport

     Edith and I ate at the buffet breakfast at the hotel around 8:30 am. We also had some last shots in the lobby after for checkout at 10:00 am.



     I then took Edith to the subway 10:30 am because she had a different flight and she needed to take the train back to Incheon. The rest of us would take a connecting flight from Busan airport to Incheon airport. The road to the subway led us to a strip with lots of restaurants and some tourist spots.


     At around 11:00 am, we learned that it would be a 2-hour train ride to the Busan station, so after taking her about 9 stations, I headed back to the hotel to meet with the other Philippine delegates.  After that, it was a mad rush to the airport for the 2:00 pm flight so we didn’t have time to take pictures.

      On November 22, Emman Ang messaged us via viber. He said that the AKC was disappointed with the no-show of one of the Philippine delegates. Ms. Tess Loring of DTI-EMB defended themselves that they informed the PTIC Seoul of the VISA problem. Emman said that wasn’t the point because they only allowed 3 companies per country and we asked for more slots, to which they obliged. So it was up to DTI-EMB to make sure that all those slots would be filled. The AKC even brought up a suggestion to make the accommodations partially paid by the delegates just so that they take it seriously next year. There were even some countries saying to scrap the event, in the end, there was good news: G-Star will continue the ASEAN partnership again next year.   

   The DTI-EMB asked us to attend a post G-star meeting on November 23. Unfortunately, I had to deal with a death in our family so I wasn’t able to attend. They emailed me that I needed to send them a report of the leads we got and also our suggestions for the preparations. They also asked us to send copies of the calling cards we gathered that are potential clients in the future.

     As a tip for those who would like to go to the G-Star, be prepared for a final full mobile game with a business model. A good looking game with a good gameplay is just for starters. Most of the time they don’t even look at your game.  Many things will be asked of you by the Chinese, Korean, and other Asian businessmen, which I am not at liberty to divulge. If you have no game or have a game but no business model, then your time and the foreign businessmen’s time will be wasted. As for services, that would depend on what services your firm will provide, but most are not interested in services since they have their own talents in their own county.

Article and Photos by Alstaire A. Sarthou;  Overview photo of BEXCO from the Internet



WIPO Copyright Workshop for Game Developers

1 12 2017

   Speakers and Delegates of the WIPO Copyright Seminar

       Last November 21, Grace emailed me and Alstaire that she registered us for a free two-day seminar called: Sub Regional Workshop on Living from Copyright in the Creative Industries: Business and Legal Issues for Game Developers. The said workshop was organized by the World Intellectual Property Office (WIPO) in cooperation with the Intellectual Property Office of the Philippines (IPOPHL)  with the assistance of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST), Republic of Korea. The said workshop will be held at the Dusit Thani Hotel on November 28 and 29 from 9:30 am to 4:30 pm.

     Attached to the email is the two-day program with foreign speakers from WIPO, a former director of a game company, a copyright/licensing lawyer and others. The program was very interesting as it can help increase our knowledge about copyright, marketing and publishing our mobile game, so I was excited to attend the event but unfortunately, I had another commitment on the 29th so I cannot make it on the said date.

November 28, 2017 

     During the registration, all the participants were generously given a book: Mastering the Game: Business and Legal Issues for Video Game Developers published by WIPO (the principal author was Mr. David Greenspan, one of the speakers in the workshop) and a paper entitled : The Legal Status of Video Games: Comparative Analysis in National Approaches by various authors one of which was one of the speakers Atty. Andy Ramos. 

10:00 am  – 10:30 am   

Opening Ceremony

     Due to traffic and other reasons, few of the registered participants arrived on time, so the organizers waited for almost 10 am before the program started instead of 9:00 am. So instead of a two-hour lunch break, it was reduced to 1 hour to make up for the 1-hour loss. 

Ms. Josephine R. Santiago, LL.M

     Ms. Josephine R. Santiago, LL.M, the Director General of IPOPHL gave the first welcoming remarks. She said that it was the first time that WIPO and IPOPHL organized a copyright seminar for video game developers. Whereas a seminar for copyright music was held 2 or 3 years ago and another one was held this year. Video games are becoming more popular, due to its entertainment value,  educational value for advocacy, it also bonds family and friends and it helps lessen the stress of daily lives of many of the young and old.  It is now an opportune time for IPOPHL to promote and introduce a National Intellectual Property strategy to the youth and the private sector to promote creativity and innovation. She cited South Korea where games such as Pororo and Invention City helps promote IP to young children. 

     She reminisced the times of the pre-digital age where children of her generation would be playing with jackstones, running around and other local games such as patintero, where there were no digital games to play with. She hopes the seminar would help promote Intellectual Property (IP) to the younger generation who are exposed to new technologies as IP contributes to the well being of the country. She cited some statistics on the contribution of the creative industries in 2010 study that it created 14.4% of the total employment as compared to 11.4% in 2006. In terms of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) revenue, the value added of the software and database industry was P17.4 billion, wholesale, buying and selling was around P14.2 billion and the database processing and publishing were around P10 billion.  She cited the potential of the video industry of the country.

Mr. Jincheoi Lee

     Mr. Lee is the Director of the Korean Cultural Center of the Philippines. He cited the creative industry is growing more rapidly and the Philippines is 3rd in the e-games popularity after Russia and China; number 4 is the US. South Korea hopes to collaborate copyright works for the cultural and economic development of the world. 

Mr. Dimiter Gantchev

     Mr. Gantchev, is the Deputy Director, Copyright Infrastructure Division, WIPO, Geneva. He said that this is the first WIPO video game workshop in the country. WIPO is one of the United Nations’ specialized agencies to help countries reach international standards in IP and enable it to participate in economic development. The workshop will show why IP matters and how to exploit IP to create more jobs and generate additional income streams.

     WIPO invited government copyright officials from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam to attend the seminar.

      Participants included game developers, lawyers, students, academe, government cultural offices and other private firms in the creative industry sector.

10:30 am – 11:55 am

Topic 1 : Setting the Scene: The Current Video Game Industry Landscape

Mr. Dimiter Gantchev

     Mr. Gantchev’s talk was mostly on the economic side of the copyright, IP, creativity, creative industries, digitization of the economy and others. The presentation was a bit abstract as he explained these topics from a macro point of view, the definition of the concepts, their role in the development of the economy, its challenges and misconceptions, relationships with one another, evolving systems, findings and conclusion. He showed some charts on the GDP and employment in the core copyright industries, different countries with different percentages in the creative industry. The correlation of digitization and quality of life in terms of GDP per capita, better life balance and human development index. 

     In summary, based on his slide presentation: IP is perceived today as an indicator of development and is linked to sustainable development. The creative industry has a significant contribution and is interconnected with the economy where it has output and employment multipliers. The creative industries contribute significantly to economic growth and feature as a strategy for national development worldwide. Video games is the fastest growing area in the creative sector with a global game audience of 2.2 to 2.6 billion people, revenue for 2017 is expected to be $108.9 billion and projected to be $128.5 billion in 2020. The Asia Pacific region is the leader in game revenues, with China garnering 25% of the world total. 

Mr. David Greenspan

     Mr. Greenspan is a former Senior Director for legal and business affairs at Bandai Namco Entertainment America Inc., principal author of the WIPO publication ‘Mastering the Game’, Adjunct Professor at Santa Clara University School of Law, where he teaches a class in entertainment transactions.

     David showed the success of the video game industry in a relatively short period of time. However, he narrated that it was not like that at the beginning, for example, it took many years to convince the public and business people of the potential of PlayStation. The projected game revenues for 2017 surpasses the music industry and close to the revenues of the film and publishing industry. Now there are numerous universities around the world offering courses in game development; with the US having around 400 institutions teaching the course. He showed in his slides big game titles such as Fallout 4, Grand Theft Auto 5 and Call of Duty: WWII with hundreds of millions in sales within just 24 hours of release. The 24-hour revenues from some of these games even surpass the weekend revenues of popular box office films. 

     He then explained the geographic revenue share of the continents with Asia having 47% of the global market revenues, with China having the highest global share. But popular games in one country does not necessarily be as popular in another country. Each country has its own local taste, so localization of language, how the game is played need to be addressed. Countries have their own preferences on how a game is played where consoles are more popular in the US, mobile phone is more popular in China and Japan. The profile of game players has changed over the last 20 years.

     David then showed more slides showing the main players in the game industry such as the developer,    publisher, console manufacturers, other platforms (mobile) distribution players and ancillary (e-sports, licensing, VR). The top publishers, major console and mobile publishers, challenges, and issues in consoles, VR technology, Pokemon augmented reality, the rise of e-sports, new business models, legal issues, developer rights, rights of publicity and gambling issues were also briefly explained in his presentation. A short question and answer time was followed after his presentation.

12:00 am  – 1:00 pm     Lunch

1:00 pm – 2:00 pm 

Topic 2 :  Overview of the Legal Framework for Video Games

Mr. Andy Ramos Gil de la Haza

     Mr. de la Haza is a Partner and Head of the Entertainment and IP Department at Bardaji & Honrado Abogados, Madrid, Spain.

     Video game protection is through patent, trademark, trade secrets and copyright. Andy gave the definition and basic principles of trademark and copyright. For copyright, there is no formality required, and it covers the elements of video games such as music, character, maps, names, and figure like those of Lara Croft, performing actors and codes. However, there is no copyright law in the world that addresses this issue. He then explained the legal classification of video games and issues of authorship among the many people in the production of a game. If there is an issue in authorship, the remuneration follows, but in the US, other production personnel is considered as hired for pay rather than sharing in the profits. Whereas in Europe, the legal system is very protective for authors. Issues of rights can spill through the users with the growing interaction of games which is generally ruled by the terms and conditions of the game and full transfer of rights to the publisher. There are technological protection measures (TPM) in the chip hardware to control access to copyright content (piracy). Issues for TPM are also discussed whether TPM should be also used in the disc or console or can the user circumvent TPM to do acts permitted by law. 


      In conclusion, video games are self-regulated with many open issues in authorship and remuneration. There is no uniform legal classification, legislation, and protection. So Andy’s advice for those in the video game publishing, go to a specialized attorney, identify the different assets of your project, analyze how to protect it, chain of rights, register when recommended, don’t publish information unnecessarily assign or license intangible assets.

Mr. Jose Jesus Disini

     Since Andy explained the trademark and copyright definition and issues, Mr. Disini did away with most of his presentation and just showed a slide and explained how a shy macaque (monkey) took a selfie under his guidance and Mr. David Slater the photographer was sued by the organization People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) in the US. The issue is who owns the copyright for the picture, which obviously does not belong to the macaque as it cannot use the money. But in the end, Mr. Slater agreed to donate 25% of future earnings from the image to protect the Indonesian macaques. 

     Mr. Disini then posed questions about the future of IP as technology advances, with artificial intelligence (AI) which may someday create its own IP with commercial value, who then owns the copyright?  We don’t know where the technology sector is headed; as technology changes the interaction changes so the law should also change with the times. 

     After the talk, there was a question and answer forum where Mr. Alvin Juban, president of the Game Developers Association of the Philippines asked about how to bring about closer cooperation of the ASEAN like the European Union in terms of copyright, since ASEAN countries don’t care much about copyright.

      Three delegates answered the question with  Ms. Soon Hyun Myung, senior program officer, copyright division of WIPO explained that Korea more than 20 years ago was also not concerned about copyright but since then it has benefitted much from copyright and that the Korean experience will be shared in the next day.

     Mr. Gantchev commented that the country should make the copyright law efficient then people will follow since it will bring the benefit to the creator and it need not be popular.

     Ms. Carmen G. Peralta of IPOPHL shared that there is something being done in terms of copyright in the ASEAN for 2016 to 2025 by having a database of copyright works in the region. Myanmar has no IP regime yet. She agrees it is a long process and we cannot expect to amend laws for each country as it will take many years to do that. 

2:00 pm – 3:00 pm

Topic 3 : Entering the Video Games Market – Licensing IP

Mr. David Greenspan

     David began by defining what is licensing and where one can create a game based on a licensed property such as from popular books, comic books, and movies. The failure to obtain the appropriate rights could prevent the game’s distribution. The benefits of licensing for both the developer and licensor was highlighted. He then showed the evolution of soccer game videos from the earliest to the present and the issues it brings.

     The pros and cons of licensing, the failure to clear the rights such as a tattoo design is copyrighted in the US and a developer could be sued if a similar design is used in a game but was not licensed. Some litigation regarding IP is not valid but can be costly to the developer. The developer could pay for damages or have to stop selling the game. David showed various actual cases of IP litigation in games involving the use of tattoos, actual buildings – Figueroa Tower, similar  strip club name or design in the area, Bell helicopter design of Textron, use of Dilinger name in guns, use of a furniture corporate maker in a game without a license, use of Humvee truck, etc. there should be a risk analysis of a trademark, a license can still be cheaper than arguing first amendment rights and fair use. 

     The license agreement terms have to be spelled out and major issues negotiated. Another form of licensing is rights of publicity. Again many actual cases have been shown, more on the image likeness  and persona being used but the look is not that similar but there is still a case; others are names and appearance – like Noriega, same football jersey color and number, a similar performance of a band and others are other examples of legal cases. 

3:30 pm  – 4:30 pm

Topic 4 : Game Development and Distribution, Publishing Agreements

Mr. David Greenspan

     Since there are only a few minutes left to the talk, David just briefly ran through the topic and promised to continue it for the next day. He explained the role and key players of the development team, the benefits of the developer on their own, the advantages of working with a publisher and the publishers’ role.

November 29, 2017

     I thought Alstaire can make it on both dates when I texted him to take notes and pictures on the 29th, he texted back that he could also not attend on the second day.  He only realized on the evening of the 28th that he had a scheduled TESDA assessment commitment on the 29th. I was really disappointed that Alstaire could not also attend on the second day as the topics were very interesting. 

     These are the missed topics: Topic 5 – Digital and Mobile Distribution and Marketing by David Greenspan; Topic 6 – E-Sports and Regulatory Issues ( privacy, data collection) by Andy Ramos Gil de la Haza; Topic 7 – Policy and Industry Issues by Ms. Jung Hye Choi, Chairperson, Serious Games and Gamification Division, Korea Game Society; Topic 8 – Video games in the Philippines – Challenges by Alvin Juban, President of the Game Developers Association of the Philippines. 

     Overall the workshop was excellent: the venue, the speakers, the topics, the food (snacks and lunch). I hope there will be a future workshop on small mobile game publishers, which will be directly applicable for the country.

Article and Photos by Edward L. Tan

Google Developers Night 2017

28 07 2017

July 26, 2017

     We were invited to the Google Developers Night by GDAP (Game Developers Association of the Philippines) at the Google Headquarters in Bonifacio Global City about a week before the event. We were not sure what the event was about as there was no agenda about it, but we were prepared to showcase our updated mobile game if needed. It was a great opportunity for us to showcase our game and also to check out the office of Google. 

     The event was scheduled from 6 pm to 9 pm; we arrived at around 6 pm but the event started around 6:30 pm and ended almost 10 pm. The Google Headquarters was a cool place, especially for creative people. You could see the artistic design influences on the detail as well as the furniture. 

      There were about 50 people invited to the event, but there were other uninvited guests and students who came but Google did not refuse them entry so the guests ballooned up to 90 people; luckily the food was sufficient for all the guests. 

     Before the talk started, I was surprised when Solon Chen, one of the board members of GDAP and the General Operations Manager of Kooapps, approached us and said that he saw our game at GameCon 2017, and said that it had vastly improved from the version he saw at ESGS 2016. He said it was a good game and we did a good job.  That was the best compliment from a GDAP board member yet.

Solon Chen

      There were two talks that night and both of them were helpful as we continue to polish our game even more. The first speaker was Derrick Mapagu, the creator of the Flippy Bottle Extreme game. This game was the first Filipino-made game that was No. 1 in the Google Play store with over 18 million downloads.  The topic was about Game Monetization.  Most game designers and players are not fans of this topic, but for the game, studio to survive, this needs to be addressed. Basically, the topic was how your game would make money. There were many ways, the simplest was selling your game at a price. If you offered your game for free, you can place ads in it or sell items within the game called In-App purchasing. We learned that players don’t like ads much; they can be annoyed by it and just drop the game but if you do it right ads can have your game make money. The information presented was really cool and it gave us ideas on how we would apply this to our game.

Derrick Magpagu

     Alvin Juban (GDAP President), Chelle Obligacion-Gray (Google Ph), Lei Bautitsta-Lo (James’ wife), Gwendolyn Foster (GDAP / Most Played Mobile), James Ronald Lo (Indigo Entertainment / Agent Aliens) and Derrick Mapagu (Most Played Mobile / Flippy Bottle)

     The second speaker was James Ronald Lo, President of Indigo Entertainment and the creator of Agent Aliens, a mobile game for Android. Agent Aliens was their first game that was their own Intellectual Property (IP). His talk was fascinating because his experience with the game mirrored ours. He introduced a demo of his game at the ESGS 2016 like us; he also got some feedback, and they had to address these in the game. He was very thankful to be invited to the event because it made people notice his game.

    Agent Aliens at GameCon 2017

     James was excited to do a soft launch at Google Play to get more feedback for his game. He promptly had a meeting with a Google representative who gave him pointers on how to get his game featured at Google. Getting featured on Google gives the game more opportunities to be viewed worldwide. The representative’s first suggestion was not to do a soft launch. If your game is not yet finished, doing a soft launch would just give a bad impression of the game. The second one was to do localization by translating the game to different languages; the players from those countries would feel the game was made for them.

     When the game was launched last January until February 2017, he got about 2,000 downloads. He did everything, social media, workers, family friends, but this was the best that the game could do. Then he was surprised when it got featured in Google Play, and it was given a 4.3 star rating. Immediately, he got 190,000 downloads in less than a one month. The game was downloaded in other countries as well; China and Vietnam had the highest percentage of downloads; incidentally, these were also the countries that he translated the game too. Of the top 8 countries that downloaded the game, 7 were from Asia.  Overall, he said to focus on making a good game first. If your game is good, everyone would take notice.

     After the talk,  dinner was served by our hosts; Jap and I then approached James to ask more about his experience, and we also showed our game. He gave us advice and feedback on how to improve our game, and he encouraged us to enter ESGS once again to market our game. He said this is where gamers, developers, and publishers take notice. One advice he gave us, which he also included in his talk: “If you can show your game without giving excuses, then you know that your game is good.”

     Towards the end, GDAP announced the different events remaining for this year. Aside from ESGS, there was G-star Game Convention, which was offering all-expense-paid tickets and accommodations for 5 companies to Busan, Korea. And some upcoming talks with people from Unreal.

     This event inspired us, and it also showed us that we still have a lot more things to consider for our game. Overall, we were excited; too excited that I already registered entering our game at the Indie Arena in ESGS 2017.

Article and most pictures by Alstaire A. Sarthou; other pictures from Chelle Grey (Speakers with GDAP and Google officer), Internet (Solon Chen) and Edward Tan (Agent Aliens)